The average earth temperature has increased by 0.6 degrees Celsius and is projected to increase further in the future. The result of the temperature rise is the global warming phenomena being witnessed world over. Key factors contributing to the temperature rise and subsequently global warming include mainly anthropogenic activities that result in increasing Green House Gas Emissions or activities that destroy the Green House Gas sinks like cutting of forests, and the practice of certain unsustainable farming methods. The ensuing global warming is expected to affect plants, animals and habitats tremendously with species and ecosystems/habitats losses likely to happen more rapidly. The emerging extreme weather events such as prolonged droughts, more enhanced storms and floods are expected to become more severe thereby affecting food production, disease transmission patterns, humans’ settlements and overall economic and social development. The UNFCCC was then established to addressclimate change through implementation of actions that contribute in Green HouseGas stabilization. Such a stabilization level should be achieved ‘within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed sustainably.
The objective of UNFCCCas stated in article 2 is to;
Achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.