List projects that require EIA

The projects to be subjected to EIA are specified in the Second Schedule of EMCA 1999, and include:
1.   General: –
a)   an activity out of character with its surrounding;
b)   any structure of a scale not in keeping with its surrounding;
c)   major changes in land use.
2.   Urban Development including:-
a)   designation of new townships;
b)   establishment of industrial estates;
c)   establishment or expansion of recreational areas;
d)   establishment or expansion of recreational townships in mountain areas, national parks and game
e)   shopping centres and complexes.
3.   Transportation including –
a)   all major roads;
b)   all roads in scenic, wooded or mountainous areas and wetlands;
c)   railway lines;
d)   airports and airfields;
e)   oil and gas pipelines;
f)    water transport.
4.   Dams, rivers and water resources including –
a)   storage dams, barrages and piers;
b)   river diversions and water transfer between catchments;
c)   flood control schemes;
d)   drilling for the purpose of utilising ground water resources including geothermal energy.
5.   Aerial spraying.
6.   Mining, including quarrying and open-cast extraction of –
a)   precious metals;
b)   gemstones;
c)   metalliferous ores;
d)   coal;
e)   phosphates;
f)    limestone and dolomite;
g)   stone and slate;
h)   aggregates, sand and gravel;
i)    clay;
j)    exploitation for the production of petroleum in any form;
k)   extracting alluvial gold with use of mercury.
7.   Forestry related activities including –
a)   timber harvesting;
b)   clearance of forest areas;
c)   reforestation and afforestation.
8.   Agriculture including –
a)   large-scale agriculture;
b)   use of pesticide;
c)   introduction of new crops and animals;
d)   use of fertilizers;
e)   irrigation.
9.   Processing and manufacturing industries including:-

Chemical discharge
mineral processing, reduction of ores and minerals;
b)   smelting and refining of ores and minerals;
c)   foundries;
d)   brick and earthware manufacture;
e)   cement works and lime processing;
f)    glass works;
g)   fertilizer manufacture or processing;
h)   explosive plants;
i)    oil refineries and petro-chemical works;
j)    tanning and dressing of hides and skins;
k)   abattoirs and meat-processing plants;
l)    chemical works and process plants;
m)  brewing and malting;
n)   bulk grain processing plants;
o)   fish-processing plants;
p)   pulp and paper mills;
q)   food-processing plants
r)    plants for the manufacture or assembly of motor vehicles;
s)   plants for the construction or repair of aircraft or railway equipment;
t)    plants for the manufacture of tanks, reservoirs and sheet-metal containers;
u)   plants for the manufacture of coal briquettes;
v)   plant for manufacturing batteries;

Electrical infrastructure
10. Elect rical infrastructure including –
a)   electricity generation stations;
b)   electrical transmission lines;
c)   electrical sub-stations;
d)   pumped-storage schemes.
11. Management of hydrocarbons including:-
the storage of natural gas and combustible or explosive fuels.
12. Waste disposal including –
a)   sites for hazardous waste disposal;
b)   sewage disposal works;
c)   works involving major atmospheric emissions;
d)   works emitting offensive odours;
e)   sites for solid waste disposal.
13. Natural conservation areas including –
a)   creation of national parks, game reserves and buffer zones;
b)   establishment of wilderness areas;
c)   formulation or modification of forest management policies;
d)   formulation or modification of water catchment management policies;
e)   policies for the management of ecosystems, especially by use of fire;
f)    commercial exploitation of natural fauna and flora;
g)   introduction of alien species of fauna and flora into ecosystems.
14. Nuclear Reactors.
15. Major developments in biotechnology including the introduction and testing of genetically modified organisms.