Target 6: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts
Revision of the National Oceans and Fisheries Policy, 2008 was completed; Sector Plan for Blue Economy, 2018-2022 was completed and launched among others on 23rd November, 2018;
The Fisheries Management and Development Act 2016 that provides for the conservation, management and development of fisheries and other aquatic resources to enhance the livelihood of communities that depend on fishing. It gives guidance on the import and export trade of fish and fish products, fish quality and safety among other provisions that support sustainable utilization of marine products in Kenya.
Other actions; development of Fisheries Management Plans; Kenya Tuna Fisheries Development and Management Strategy 2013 -2018, establishment of an Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) centre in Mombasa and installation of a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), restocking of 135 dams, 11 rivers and 3 lakes with a total of 4,881,663 assorted fish fingerlings to increase productivity, mapping and delineation of thirteen (13) critical fish habitats, 5 in Lake Naivasha, 3 in Lake Baringo and 5 in Lake Turkana to protect the breeding areas and thus increase in-situ stock recruitment.
Under Blue Economy Sector that has been recently launched, the priorities are:
- 56 sub-catchment management plans developed, and 236 sub-catchment management plans implemented to assist local communities to protect wetlands, lakes, and other water catchment areas.
- Integrated catchment approach and ecosystem-based adaptation structural/ mechanical design, such as structural catchment protection, especially in the upper catchments,
- Livelihood systems improved on 60,000 hectares of degraded land through the development of water pans and ponds; and
- Rehabilitating and restoring mangrove forests; and
- Conserving at least 15% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services.
- Develop the Blue Economy Master Plan (BEMP) to provide a blueprint to guide the long-term holistic development of the Blue Economy.
Kenya is a signatory to the the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, (UNCLOS) of 1982 and continues to be active in national, regional and global efforts. The Nairobi Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of Coastal and Marine Environment of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) .
Kenya is participating in the implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for the protection of the Western Indian Ocean from land-based sources and activities (WIO-SAP) and The Western Indian Ocean Large Marine Ecosystems Strategic Action Programme Policy Harmonisation and Institutional Reforms (WIO LME SAPPHIRE). Kenya is addressing at the continental level, the 2050 African Integrated Maritime Strategy (AIMS) which provides a broad framework for the protection and sustainable exploitation of African maritime domain for wealth creation and the Policy Framework and Reform Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture in Africa of 2010 also provides a comprehensive framework for governance and exploration of Africa’s fisheries and aquaculture resources. Additionally, the Africa’s Blue Economy: A Policy Hand Book (2016) provides a guideline for sustainable blue economy development for African Union (AU) Member States.
At International and Regional level Kenya is a signatory to many regional and international Conventions, Agreements and Protocols, governing fisheries.
The Country is also a member of Regional Fisheries Bodies such as the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, International Whaling Commission, Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission, and the Committee of Fisheries and Aquaculture of Africa.
Monitoring surveillance, control and patrol of fisheries enhanced
Vessel monitoring systems(VMS) to enhanced surveillance established
Ecosystem management planning standardized and adopted
Critical fish habitats mapped and protected
Beach management regulations developed.
New marine vessel acquired for research and training.
Economic stimulus policy to promote aquaculture.
|SDGs||Relevant Target and Indicators||Kenya’s contribution|
|Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
|Target 14.2: By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
• Indicator 14.2.1: Proportion of national exclusive economic zones managed using ecosystem-based approaches
|Based on the available information and data, , 40% was the proportion of fish stocks within biological sustainable levels. Hence, six fish species out of ten were found to be over – exploited. The observed declines in catches and Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) for some species were an indication of potential localized depletion in some fishing grounds. In response,
· enactment of the Fisheries Management and Development Act No. 35 of 2016, Blue Economy Sector Plan, 2018-2022
· Fisheries Management Plans; Kenya Tuna Fisheries Development and Management Strategy 2013 -2018,
· enactment of the Fisheries Management and Development Act No. 35 of 2016,
· restocking of 135 dams, 11 rivers and 3 lakes with a total of 4,881,663 assorted fish fingerlings to increase productivity,
· mapping and delineation of thirteen (13) critical fish habitats, 5 in Lake Naivasha, 3 in Lake Baringo and 5 in Lake Turkana to protect the breeding areas and thus increase in-situ stock recruitment.
Target 14.4: By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
• Indicator 14.4.1: Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable level
· The Government established the Kenya Coast Guard Service through the Kenya Coast Guard Service Act, 2018 to address and strengthen Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) systems to combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing and the persistent threats to safety and security in the maritime domain, including piracy, dumping of toxic waste, drug and human trafficking.
· The Government also acquired and commissioned Offshore Patrol Vessel (P.V Doria) in 2018 to facilitate MCS of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
· Establishment of an Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) centre in Mombasa and installation of a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS).
|Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
|Target 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
• Indicator 15.1.1: Forest area as a proportion of total land area
• Indicator 15.1.2: Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type
Implementation of the EMCA Amendment Act 2015; Key policy responses include the National Environment Policy 2013 (Pg 36), National Strategy and Action Plan for the Management of Invasive Species in Kenya, The Plant Health Protection Act Cap 324, Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Authority Act. No. 13 of 2013, Environmental Management and Coordination Act 1999 (amendment 2015), Wildlife Conservation and Management Act 2013, Forest Conservation and Management Act 2016 and Fisheries Management and Development Act 2016.
|Target 15.2: By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
15.2.1: Progress towards sustainable forest management
|· National Forest programme 2016-2030 developed based on sustainable forest management principles.
· Kenya’s five major water towers namely; the Aberdares, Cherangany, Mau, Mt. Kenya and Mt. Elgon and other smaller significant Water Towers and catchment areas. The rehabilitation, protection and securing of Enoosupukia (12,000 Ha), South West Mau (19,000 Ha), Masai Mau (64,000 Ha) and Olpusimoru (26,000 Ha) was realized. An area of 1,250 Ha was surrendered voluntarily at Mau complex.
· The Fisheries Management and Development Act 2016 provides for the conservation, management and development of fisheries and other aquatic resources to enhance the livelihood of communities that depend on fishing. It gives guidance on the import and export trade of fish and fish products, fish quality and safety among other provisions that support sustainable utilization of marine products in Kenya.
· Wetlands Conservation and Management Policy 2015. A master plan for the conservation and sustainable management of water catchment areas in Kenya has also been developed to guide practical and transformative actions for the sustainable management of these complex ecosystems.
|Target 15.9: By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
|· National mangrove Ecosystem Management Plan 2017-2027
· Various valuation studies have been undertaken in Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, River basins, Water Catchments and Lake Basins in Kenya. See details in Section III Target 2.
The Green Economy Strategy and Implementation Plan provide the policy push under Thematic area 3 on Sustainable Natural Resource Management which encompasses agriculture, forestry, water, wildlife, land use and extractive industries. In order to address the degradation and loss of natural resources, the tools under this thematic area include spatial planning and targeted periodic valuation of natural capital, payment for ecosystem services and environmental accounting.